Frequently Asked Questions
What is cystic fibrosis?
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening, genetic disease that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is found in about 30,000 people in the United States (70,000 worldwide). People with CF inherit a defective gene that causes a buildup of thick mucus in the lungs, pancreas and other organs.
When mucus clogs the lungs, it can become very difficult to breathe. The thick mucus also traps bacteria in the airways, which can result in infections and inflammation and often leads to severe lung damage, and eventually, respiratory failure. Respiratory problems are the most serious and persistent complication for people with CF.
In the pancreas, the buildup of mucus prevents the release of digestive enzymes that help the body break down food and absorb important nutrients. People with CF often have malnutrition and poor growth.back to top
What are the symptoms of CF?
Cystic fibrosis is a chronic disease. The most common symptoms are:
How do people get CF?
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease. People inherit CF from their parents through genes, which also determine many other characteristics, including height, hair color and eye color.
CF is caused by mutations in a gene that produces a protein, called CFTR. The CFTR protein controls the flow of salt and water in and out of the cells of organs like the lungs and pancreas.
To have cystic fibrosis, a person must inherit two copies of the defective CF gene — one copy from each parent. Both parents must have at least one copy of the defective gene.
People with only one copy of the defective CF gene are called carriers, but they do not have the disease themselves. Each time two CF carriers have a child, the chances are:
There are more than 1,800 known mutations of the CF gene. Because there are so many, most genetic tests only screen for the most common mutations.
Learn more about CF genetics and different CF mutations.back to top
Who gets CF?
About 30,000 children and adults in the United States (70,000 worldwide) have CF. An additional 10 million people — about one in every 31 Americans — are symptomless carriers of the defective CF gene. CF is most common in white people, but is found in people of all races and many ethnicities.back to top
How is CF diagnosed?
Most children are now diagnosed with CF at birth through newborn screening, and more than 75 percent are diagnosed by the age of 2.
A doctor who sees the symptoms of CF will order a sweat test or a genetic test to confirm the diagnosis.
CF is usually diagnosed by conducting a sweat test, which measures the amount of salt in a person’s sweat. A mild chemical and a small amount of electricity are placed on the skin (usually on the arm) to stimulate the sweat glands. Sweat is then collected and the amount of chloride, a component of salt in the sweat, is measured. A high level of chloride means that the person has cystic fibrosis. The sweat test is painless.
The best place to receive a reliable sweat test is at a Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited care center.
In a genetic test, a blood sample or cells from the inside of the cheek are taken and sent to a laboratory that specializes in genetic testing. A genetic test is often used to confirm a diagnosis of CF if the results of a sweat test are not clear, but genetic testing is mostly used to find out if a person is a CF carrier.
Learn more about testing for Cystic Fibrosis.back to top
How is CF treated?
Treating a complex disease like CF requires therapies that address problems in different parts of the body, especially the lungs and the digestive system.
Because the type and severity of CF symptoms can differ widely from person to person, there is no typical treatment plan for people with the disease. CF Foundation-accredited care centers work closely with people with CF and their families to create individualized treatment plans.
However, each day, most people with CF typically:
The CF Foundation supports research to discover and develop new CF treatments, and maintains a pipeline of potential therapies that target the disease from every angle.
The most recent drug approved for CF, ivacaftor (Kalydeco™), treats the underlying cause of CF in a small number of people with specific mutations of the CF gene. All other CF therapies available today treat the symptoms of CF.
Work is ongoing to find additional CF therapies that could help improve key symptoms of the disease by targeting the disease at its root.
Learn more about CF care and treatment.back to top
What is the life expectancy for people with CF?
It is not possible to accurately predict how long a person who has CF will live. Many different factors — for example, severity of disease and age at diagnosis — can affect an individual’s health and the course of the disease. Recent research has shown that the severity of CF symptoms is based partly on the type of CF gene mutations a person has.
The CF Foundation Patient Registry collects information on the health of the more than 27,000 people treated at CF Foundation-accredited care centers. According to the most recent Patient Registry data, the median predicted age of survival for people with CF is in the early 40s. Median predicted age of survival is the age by which half of the people tracked in the Patient Registry would be expected to survive, given the ages of the patients in the Registry and the distribution of deaths in a particular year.
In the 1950s, children with CF were not expected to live long enough to attend elementary school. Today, approximately half of all people with CF in the United States are 18 years or older. The steady “aging” of the CF population reflects the remarkable progress that has been made in understanding and treating CF. Thanks to CF Foundation-supported research and care, an increasing number of people with CF are living well into adulthood and leading healthy lives, pursuing careers, getting married and having children of their own.
Find resources especially for adults with CF.back to top
Is there a cure for CF?
Currently, there is no cure for CF. However, specialized medical care, aggressive drug treatments and therapies, along with proper CF nutrition, can significantly lengthen and improve the quality of life for those with CF.
In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ivacaftor (Kalydeco™) — the first drug to treat the underlying cause of CF in a small group of people with a specific mutation of the CF gene. In 2014, ivacaftor was approved for people ages 6 and older who have eight additional CF mutations.
It is too early say whether ivacaftor will be an actual cure for those who are taking it. However, the drug has shown that it is possible to target the defective CFTR protein that causes CF and improve key symptoms of the disease. Ivacaftor is now being studied in combination with other potential therapies to treat people with the most common CF mutation.
Ivacaftor also offers a roadmap that could help advance the discovery and development of more lifesaving therapies for all people with CF. The CF Foundation continues to support cutting-edge research to address the root cause of CF, and maintains a robust pipeline of potential therapies targeting the disease from every angle. Research to find a cure for CF has never been more promising.
We will not rest until we have a cure for all people with the disease, regardless of their mutation.
Learn more about CF drugs in development.back to top
How does CF affect the lungs?
In a healthy person, the CF gene makes a protein — known as CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis conductance Transmembrane Regulator) — that is found in the cells that line different organs, such as the lungs and pancreas. The CFTR protein controls the movement of electrically charged particles, including chloride and sodium (components of salt), in and out of these cells.
In people with CF, the protein is defective and the salt balance in the body is disturbed. Because there is too little salt and water on the outside of the cells, the thin layer of mucus that helps keep the lungs free of bacteria becomes very thick and difficult to cough out. This thick mucus then clogs the airways and, without treatment, can lead to inflammation and infections that damage the lungs.back to top
No. A lung transplant will not cure CF because the defective gene that causes the disease is in all of the cells in the body, not only in the lungs.
Lung transplantations are serious and difficult procedures. But the growing success rate makes lung transplantation an important treatment option for some people with CF who have severe lung disease.
Learn more about lung transplants and CF.back to top
Can CF be treated with gene therapy?
In gene therapy, healthy genes are delivered into cells and tissues of the body to override the effects of defective genes. When the gene that causes CF was identified in 1989, there was much excitement that it would soon be possible to treat CF using gene therapy.
Scientists are currently exploring the use of gene therapy for many diseases, including CF, but have had little success. It has been very hard to find a safe and reliable way to deliver healthy genes into the body. Like all medicines, gene therapy must be shown to be safe and effective before it can be approved as a treatment.back to top
Where can people with CF get the best care?
Cystic fibrosis is a complex disease that affects many parts of the body. The best place to receive comprehensive CF care is at one of the more than 110 CF Foundation-accredited care centers nationwide, which specialize in treating CF.
People with CF need a team approach for all aspects of their care. In addition to the person with CF and his or her family, the CF care team includes specialists who work at the CF care center. The clinic team is headed by a physician and includes a program or clinic coordinator, nurse, dietitian, social worker and respiratory or physical therapist. Some care centers have other specialists on the care team, such as genetic counselors, pharmacists and psychologists.
To find a CF care center, visit our interactive care center map or call 1-800-FIGHT CF.
Many CF Foundation-accredited care centers also conduct clinical trials to study the latest potential treatments for CF. By volunteering to participate in a CF clinical trial, people with CF can actively help advance the search for a cure.
Learn more about clinical trials testing potential new CF drugs and therapies.back to top
Are there programs or resources that help people pay for CF drugs and care?
The CF Foundation’s Patient Assistance Resource Center is an online information hub that links the CF community to numerous Foundation-supported assistance programs that offer individualized help. Through the Patient Assistance Resource Center, patients and families can:
Learn more about these and other programs in the Patient Assistance Resource Center.back to top
How can I help support CF research and care?
Fighting CF is a team effort. Every day, people with CF and their families, health care professionals, researchers, donors and volunteers work together to advance the search for a cure and improve the quality of life for those with CF.
Real progress has been made in the quest to find a cure, but there is more work to be done. There are many ways you can help people with CF live longer and healthier lives: