Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, and other organs, and how to treat and live with this chronic disease.
CF is a rare genetic disease found in about 30,000 people in the U.S. If you have CF or are considering testing for it, knowing about the role of genetics in CF can help you make informed decisions about your health care.
If you or your child has just been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, or your doctor has recommended testing for CF, you may have many questions.
Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride test, a genetic or carrier test, and a clinical evaluation at a CF Foundation-accredited care center.
Raising a child with cystic fibrosis can bring up many questions because CF affects many aspects of your child’s life. Here you’ll find resources to help you manage your child’s daily needs and find the best possible CF care.
Living with cystic fibrosis comes with many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a balance between your busy lifestyle and your CF care.
People with CF are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. As an adult with CF, you may reach key milestones you might not have considered. Planning for these life events requires careful thought as you make decisions that may impact your life.
People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and more fulfilling lives, thanks in part to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited care centers provide expert care and specialized disease management to people living with cystic fibrosis.
We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers and 53 affiliate programs nationwide. The high quality of specialized care available throughout the care center network has led to the improved length and quality of life for people with CF.
The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation provides standard care guidelines based on the latest research, medical evidence, and consultation with experts on best practices.
As a clinician, you’re critical in helping people with CF maintain their quality of life. We’re committed to helping you partner with patients and their families by providing resources you can use to improve and continue to provide high-quality care.
As part of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's mission to help improve the lives of people living with cystic fibrosis, the PSDC initiative taps the CF community to inform key efforts to support the management of daily care.
Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with you to provide specialized, comprehensive CF care.
Many cystic fibrosis patients and families face complicated issues related to getting the care they need. But CF Foundation Compass makes sure that no one has to do it alone.
For many people with cystic fibrosis, dealing with insurance is as much a part of living with the disease as nebulizers and vests. Many people with CF and their families face issues related to getting the care they need, but no one has to do it alone.
The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation is the world’s leader in the search for a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from all angles.
The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical trials and treatments that are being developed to improve the treatment of cystic fibrosis.
Our understanding of CF continues to evolve as scientists study what causes the disease and how it affects the body. These insights drive the development of new and better treatments and bring us one step closer to a cure.
Researchers, supported by the CF Foundation, have made tremendous advances to improve the health and quality of life of people with CF. We are committed to providing the tools and resources you need to continuously build upon this work.
Various assays for measuring cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel activity, as well as its stability in the membrane, can be used for basic research and drug discovery efforts.
As a membrane bound protein, CFTR's biogenesis carries it through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Within the ER the CFTR polypeptide is core glycosylated at two sites and then within the Golgi apparatus it receives complex glycosylation that is maintained at the level of the plasma membrane.
When evaluated on a Western blot the core glycosylated immature form of CFTR migrates further and is designated the "B-band." The complex glycosylated form of CFTR, representing transit through the Golgi, but not necessarily plasma membrane expression, migrates slower during gel electrophoresis due to its greater molecular weight and is termed "C-band."
Complex glycosylation appears to play a role in prolonging membrane stability. The F508del CFTR protein shows a marked drop in the level of "C-band" observed in Western blot assays.
The function of different CFTR mutations and their response to CFTR modulators (potentiators, correctors, and inhibitors) is commonly studied in CF. A number of assays have been developed to evaluate CFTR function; however, some of the more commonly used assays for basic research and drug discovery efforts are highlighted below.
There are two main kinds of assays that are done on cells expressing CFTR in the apical membrane:
A number of high-throughput assays have been configured to screen for small molecules that repair the dysfunction of mutant CFTR. The cells chosen for the screening may have an influence on what kind of modulators are found.
F508del CFTR cells can be used in assays configured such that small molecules that correct the trafficking dysfunction are termed corrector hits. Alternatively, these assays can also be configured to find small molecules that improve the open probability of CFTR, and these small molecules are referred to as potentiator hits.
High-throughput assays to detect restored CFTR function have been published by a number of investigators including Dr. Alan Verkman (University of California, San Francisco), Dr. Luis Gallietta (Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy), and Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (San Diego, CA).
While most known CFTR modulator compounds have been discovered through screening assays using immortalized cell lines, an important pre-clinical cell-based model system used to confirm the activity of hits is primary human epithelial cells derived from lung transplant tissue.
The publications below describe the discovery of CFTR potentiator and corrector compounds and their early stage clinical results that demonstrate the utility of these cells.
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